This said, we must now go into more detail, and attempt a more precise characterization of the phenomenon of turcicization.

First of all, from the geographical point of view it is probable that turcicization was not of equal density everywhere. Seen through the chronicles

which predominantly report frontier incidents, turcicization appears especially important on all the fringes of the Turkish political domain; to the west and north confronting the Greeks, to the south the Armenians. The Georgians for their part were caused more anxiety by the frontier with Adharbayjan, which was fairly open, than by the difficult mountains which separated them from Asia Minor. There is no doubt, as scattered episodes remind us, that Turks also populated the interior. It remains the case however that the truly Turcoman element was massed above all on the frontiers, whether spontaneously or by the organized transfer of population. It sometimes happens that Byzantine writers give place names in their Turkish form, as if no one remembered the original form.