ABSTRACT

It was however in the west that the great enterprise of Kay Khusraw’s second sultanate took place; but there once again, because of his agreement with Theodore Lascaris, outside the Empire of Nicaea and indeed on the possessions of its enemies. In these territories, it will be admitted that the emperor of Nicaea had more or less explicitly recognized that the sultan had as full liberty to operate as against Trebizond and the Armenians of Cilicia. Under Kilic Arslan III, and no doubt after long encirclement by

the Turcomans, Isparta (Gk. Baris) had fallen into the hands of the Turks; Aldobrandini, the lord of Antalya, a Byzantine adventurer from Tuscany, had perhaps tried to save it. In 1207 Kay Khursraw attacked Antalya itself. He doubtless judged it necessary to establish a firm Seljukid base in a land which the Turcomans had long traversed and gone beyond, but there is also above all evidence of commercial relations as well. In the new conditions of the eastern Mediterranean, Antalya could not fail to fall increasingly under Cypriot influence. Merchants from Alexandria complained to Kay Khusraw of their sufferings at the hands of Franks in Antalya. It was in every way the normal southern outlet for Anatolia and Konya, the major port in relations with Egypt. To save themselves, the people of Antalya applied to the regent of Cyprus, Walter of Montbeliard, who brought 200 knights over and compelled the Turks to withdraw slightly. But the Franks were powerless to prevent the attacker devastating the countryside, where the people of Antalya had their estates and means of subsistence. Moreover struggles for power broke out between the local people and the Cypriots. According to Ibn al-Athlr (who lacks confirmation from any source from those directly involved) the Greeks finally called upon the Turks against the Franks; it is at least certain that the principal Frankish source considers that Walter conquered Antalya, while according to Ibn Blbl the Turks had only the Franks to fight. A three-day sack ensued in March 1207. The majority of the Franks fell; then Kay Khusraw constituted the city and its province into a new government for the benefit of his freedman, Mubariz al-Dln Ertokii§ b. Abdallah, of whom more will be heard.