ABSTRACT

The disorganization of Byzantine Anatolia, and the yet primitive organization of the Turcomans, explain the incapacity of the chroniclers of this period to report even the major facts. Those of the year 1073, of which something is known, give a good idea of it. In this year Roussel of Bailleul, the leader of the Norman mercenaries, sent to Caesarea (Kayseri) with Isaac Comnenus, abandoned his chief, who was then captured by the Turks, while his brother, Alexius, had great difficulty in bringing the army back west of Ancyra (Ankara). The Emperor Michael VII Ducas sent his uncle John Ducas against Roussel, who took him and proclaimed him emperor as a rival to Michael. John then called upon the Turkish band of Artuk. Near

to Nicomedia (Izmit) Roussel and John Ducas were captured, but Roussel was liberated by Artuk (against the wishes of Byzantium), and withdrew to the east. Alexius Comnenus paid another Turkish chief to deliver Roussel to him at Amasea (Amasya). This did not signify that the way to the west was open, for in order to escape Alexius had with great difficulty to take ship at Heraclea (Eregli). At the same time the presence of the Turks was noted near Miletus (Balat) and Trebizond (Trabzon).