The handful of English Jacobites who remained with the army intoScotland set off in two columns. The Chevalier de Johnstone with the cavalry went to Dumfries where ‘a town of fanatical Calvinists’ had

seized ammunition wagons on the way out. Now they were made to pay

a punishing fine.1 The other column made for Glasgow arriving there on

25 December 1745, where they learnt of the fall of Carlisle and that all

the garrison were now Cumberland’s prisoners. Johnstone speculated as

to why they had been left behind in Carlisle when it was obvious that

it would need 4000 men to defend the city against Cumberland.2 The

reason may have been to maintain a Stuart presence in England, and for

this the garrison, mainly Englishmen, was sacrificed.