Chronology 1197 death of the Emperor Henry VI; Frederick, aged three, is heir

to the kingdom of Sicily

1214 Otto IV defeated by Philip Augustus at the Battle of Bouvines

1215 Frederick crowned at Aachen

1216 death of Innocent

1218 death of Otto IV

1220 Frederick crowned as Emperor by Pope Honorius III

1226 accession of Louis

1227 death of Honorius III, election of Cardinal Ugolino as Gregory IX; Frederick finally embarks on a Crusade, returns within two days and is excommunicated

1231 The Constitutions of Melfi promulgated by Frederick

1233 the Inquisition in France

1237 Milan defeated by Frederick; Gregory instigates a campaign of anti-imperial preaching

1239 Frederick excommunicated

1240-1 Frederick marches on Rome; death of Gregory

1243 election of Innocent IV

1245 Frederick’s deposition pronounced by General Council of the Church at Lyons

1248 defeat of Frederick’s army by papalist forces at Parma

1249-54 Louis’s first Crusade

1250 death of Frederick, accession of Conrad IV; capture and ransom of Louis

1259 Treaty of Paris

1266 papally supported eviction of Conrad’s heir by Charles of Anjou

1268 Frederick’s grandson, Conradin, beheaded after unsuccessful attempt to reclaim his patrimony

1270 Louis’s second Crusade, on which he dies

1297 canonization of Louis

In the Middle Ages the people of Western Europe regarded them-selves as a single society, which they often likened to the seamless robe of Christ. They considered themselves to be ‘the Christian people’ or the Church, and professed obedience to the government of Christ as it was exercised through the agency of two powers, the Empire and the Papacy. The one was supposed to exercise all temporal, and the other all spiritual power; and though there might in fact be several independent kingdoms and a schism between Orthodox and Catholic Christianity, these latter were not regarded as essential features of the order of creation, but simply as accidents or the consequence of sin.