After reading the above examples – ask yourself the question – who is responsible for pro-

tecting these vulnerable humans when the responsible states are often powerless to help or do

not even care? One factor appears certain, namely, that traditional Realist conceptions of

security (outlined in Chapter 24) are wholly inappropriate and it is largely because of their

narrow concerns that critical approaches sought to shift attention from the state to the

human. Human security is the latest field within Security Studies that has encouraged us to

go beyond thinking purely in terms of the military defence of state territory and interests.