The conclusion that George Steiner reached in the 1970s still rings true, and is probably the kind of conclusion which any serious attempt

to survey translation theories would reach today. As this book has shown, no matter how novel the labels may have been (covert vs overt, instrumental vs documental, etc.), the choice in practice is still roughly the same: free vs literal. But is the choice so straightforward? How ‘free’, where and when? Where and when might ‘literal’ translation prove inadequate? These and similar questions remain largely unanswered.