All praise and thanks be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, for His Providence and Divine Direction throughout my life and especially during my extended stay in the United States.

This work is a modified version of a doctoral dissertation done at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A. However, it represents a collective undertaking by the writer and numerous others who contributed either directly or indirectly to its completion. I would like, then, to express my gratitude and warm thanks to the director of my Dissertation Committee, Professor Robert T. Daland, and to its other four members: Professor Ralph Braibanti, Professor Edward E. Azar, Professor Herbert L. Bodman and Professor Michael Lienesch. Professor Daland has graciously given much of his time and effort, directing and guiding this study. To Professor Ralph Braibanti - James B. Duke Professor of Political Science at Duke University - go my sincere thanks for his recommendations, guidance, and encouragement. I also wish to thank Professors Edward E. Azar, Herbert L. Bodman, and Michael Lienesch at UNC-Chapel Hill. Professor Azar's help throughout my stay at Chapel Hill cannot go without mentioning. Professor Bodman's wealth of information on historical Islam assisted me a great deal; to him I also acknowledge the map of the World of Islam. Professor Lienesch's numerous sug-

gestions, advice, and criticism are greatly appreciated, particularly his insights on organization of the study.