The previous chapters set the stage for the discussion of an Islamic model of administrative development to be treated in this chapter. It has been demonstrated that no model can be sound and effective unless it is grounded in the culture and ideology of the people which it is constructed to serve. It has been shown earlier that, in many cases, intellectuals and leaders of the Muslim countries have somehow grasped or understood the basic value of ideology in development. Some of them, nevertheless, have argued that the ideological basis of their policies of development is precisely an adaptation of a European 'ism' - usually Socialism. Binder (1966:197-8) reminds us that these leaders and intellectuals, not only in the Muslim world but in the Third World generally:

do not so readily admit that they are changing or adapting the indigenous tradition. At any rate, the adaptation of a universalistic theory or ism to special circumstances is the creation of an ideology, in the truest sense of the term.