The ways in which level of personality organization and character formation are interdependent have been theoretically advanced by Kernberg\s (1984) work. Empirical research to test such theory however; has been virtually absent. Specific character pathologies and their relationship to psychotic personality organization have likewise received little attention (Frosch, 1983; Meloy 1988). In fact, it was not until the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM -III-R]; American Psychiatric Asso­ ciation , 1987) that the diagnoses of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, for instance, could be applied to the same patient at the same time.