Since the proof of a methodological recommendation, like that of a pudding, is in the eating rather than in the ingredients, the analyses in this book will have to be supplemented by illustrations of the way in which they help to clear up a number of notoriously controversial problems. The majority of such problems, however, involve analyses of the function not only of descriptions but also of distinctions and of such concepts as ‘really’, ‘merely’, ‘strictly speaking’ and ‘correspon­ dence between true statement and fact’. For this reason most of the illustrations are relegated to later chapters.