The purpose of this chapter is to examine the processes which may transform the configurations and meanings of the ideological, cultural, political, and social components of 'citizenship'. The contents and patterns of citizenship education will, no doubt, have to be readjusted, in order to adequately prepare the younger generation to assume their role as citizens. One reason why this is a difficult task is that a mainstream theory of democracy is nonexistent today, and has been replaced by rather fragmented and isolated endeavors. The lack of a comprehensive theory of democracy further erodes the foundations of democracy because it becomes impossible to have reasons for existing institutions, and because democracies are not viable unless their citizens understand them (Sartori, 1987).