Our goal in this book has been to help readers get their arms around the concept of continuous learning and its application at the individual, group, and organiza­ tion levels. In chapter 1, we described the field as nested (individual learning is embedded in group learning, group in organization, organization in environment), iterative (learning mechanisms are similar at each level), integrated (to under­ stand learning at one level it is necessary to take into account the other levels), and systemic (input, throughput, and output components with feedback loops and open to the environment). Our goal in this final chapter is to pull together the themes of the book and offer ideas for strengthening continuous learning in orga­ nizations. The themes are the following:

1. Learning occurs at individual, group, and organization levels, and to understand learning at one level, you need to understand learning at the other levels. This sometimes imposes challenges and dilemmas because forces for learning at one level are influenced, and may even be contra­ dictory to, forces at other levels.