This final chapter will try to draw together some theoretical concerns of this book and to discuss China’s internationalization in a comparative and international context. Based on the analyses in the previous chapters and in consideration of both current achievements and remaining dilemmas, some suggestions will also be made for improving the practice of China’s university internationalization and in seeking clearer guidelines for further action. First, the conceptual framework of internationalization is revisited, with the key focus on the exploration of Chinese understanding of university internationalization. Chinese social and cultural contexts are here highlighted. While its distinctiveness is given priority, it is also argued that China’s practice shares much common ground with many other countries. The discussion then turns to a deeper assessment of the direction in which China’s higher education is moving. From there, the impact of the world globalization process on China’s internationalization of higher education is explored. A further investigation into one major consequence of China’s current practice of university internationalization, the growing internal differentiation, is then emphasized. The last part of the chapter deals with implications of this study for practice and, accordingly, discusses some strategies that might be employed to effectively facilitate further improvement of internationalization in Chinese universities.