This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. Culture' has a long and convoluted trajectory as a key concept in anthropology. The classic definition, launched by Edward B. Tylor in his magnum opus, Primitive culture, characterises 'culture' as 'that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society'. The European historical ideas about contingency combine the two notions of 'fortune' and 'providence'. Whereas fortune in life was understood to be associated with random constellations of causal factors set apart from human rationality and will, providence was believed to originate from the will of God, reflecting upon the spiritual and moral qualities of a human being. The book explains conceptualisation of risk and hazard are imbued with meanings through dialectic interplay of victim-patient positions and their derived agency perspectives.