The concept The concept of green growth has its origins in the Asia-Pacific region, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth in the last 30 years. The concept of economic growth in Asia has been subject to various theoretical debates, including those of mainstream neoclassical observers as well as many heterodox economists who believe that the remarkable performance of Asian economies has much to do with the role of their state, rather than (or in addition to) that of market forces. The analysis of the Asian model of development was usually carried out in the framework of the national economy. On the other hand, the flying geese concept has often been used to explain the regional catching-up process, particularly after the mid-1980s. The concept is based on the implicit assumption that late industrialisers can catch up provided that they relate themselves with early industrialisers along market rationalism (Kashara, 2013). In the period 1995-2002 in the Asia-Pacific region, demand for water, energy and raw materials increased by 50 per cent, emphasising the need for the efficient use of resources. Such approach was adopted by the Ministerial Declaration (the Seoul Initiative Network on Green Growth) and the regional implementation plan for sustainable development in 2005, when governments and other stakeholders from Asia and the Pacific agreed to move beyond the sustainable development rhetoric and pursue a path of ‘green growth’ (Allen and Clouth, 2012). Based on the declaration, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) launched a regional initiative that supported green growth as a key strategy for achieving sustainable development and the MDGs (in particular, Goal 2 relating to poverty reduction and Goal 7 relating to environmental sustainability). The green growth approach adopted by the Ministerial Declaration sought to harmonise economic growth with environmental sustainability, while improving the eco-efficiency of economic growth and enhancing the synergies between environment and economy. The ROK, which adopted a national green growth strategy in 2008, has promoted the green growth concept since then, including through the OECD. The OECD ministerial council, representing 30 members and five prospective members, from countries comprising approximately 80 per cent of the global

economy, in 2009 approved a declaration acknowledging that green and growth can go hand-in-hand and launched the development of the OECD Green Growth Strategy. The strategy aimed to bring together economic, environmental, technological, financial and development aspects into a comprehensive framework. In 2010 green growth was high on the agenda of various organisations:

• The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) adopted the ASEAN Leaders’ Statement on Sustained Recovery and Development.