The task of finding theoretical tools in the international and comparative development literature for the study of China's educational open door was even more daunting than learning how to use the historical reference point. Reconstituting the Chinese puzzle in these terms is a very difficult intellectual task. Fudan University took on itself the task of forging a modern ethos of scholarship suited to a slowly emerging vision of a new China, and its institutional history has reflected the difficulties associated with such a task. It might be said to represent an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) university model, the combined wisdom of patterns that have been increasingly homogenized in the advanced capitalist world since the 1960s. On the second level is bilateral interaction with Japan, European nations, North America, and many other countries, where distinctive knowledge patterns underlie cultural policy and make for interesting differences in the form of assistance and cooperation offered to Chinese universities.