Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become recognisable shorthand for the onus on business to consider the consequences of business activity on the societies and environments in which they operate. One avenue for the engagement of extractive companies in responding to resource conflict has been the expansion of the theorisation and practice of CSR to encompass conflict analysis and peace building. The resource conflicts are characterised by the interplay of capitalistic economic models. CSR literature focuses on the causes of resource conflict in Bougainville and West Papua specifically, and elucidates lessons that might be learned from particular conflicts for the development and implementation of beneficial CSR in other locations. A recent framework to guide responsible resource exploitation is the Natural Resource Charter (NRC) and it offers guidelines to manage natural resources that generates economic growth, and promotes the welfare of the population. The CSR explores the possibilities that might emerge through the corporate engagement with their associations with sources of conflict.