This chapter is to present an overview of the history of terrorism, as it is an important adjunct to understanding of the concept, motives and rationale of terrorism. The political and other objectives of terrorist attacks are discussed, as is the nature of terrorism especially in countries which have experienced protracted conflict, such as Israel/Palestine, Afghanistan, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sri Lanka. The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) from 2002 to 2011 highlights that global terrorism significantly and steadily increased, particularly in the 2005 to 2007 period. The attacks were largely attributed to the Al Qaeda terrorist group, formed in 1989 in response to the incursion of Soviet forces into Afghanistan. The Soviet Union reportedly stockpiled biological agents during the Cold War, and such agents have already been used by the Aum Shinrikyo sect in Japan. The socio-economic effect of the bombing was widespread and not limited to the hotel and tourist industry.