Organisational frameworks include not only formal structures and processes, but also custom and practice that has developed over time. The latter may be local to academic schools and departments as well as institution-wide, and in turn create expectations from staff based on what has happened in the past, for instance in relation to promotions. Structures can therefore consist of what is written down, for instance in human resource policies and strategies, and also of what happens in practice but is not necessarily written down. Because systems may be slow to catch up with custom and practice, individual processes may be worked around. Such workarounds may become accepted for the time being, although there may be a time lag before policies are formally institutionalised. This is therefore likely to be an ongoing and iterative process, particularly where boundaries are being pushed and/or bespoke solutions sought.