As the 1990s progressed, incidents of political violence throughout Xinjiang became more frequent and increasingly serious. This was partly because of the internal political, social and ethnic dynamics of Xinjiang and partly in response to the dis-integration of the Soviet Union and the formation of new states by the predominantly Turkic peoples living across the border from Xinjiang. By the end of the decade, after two episodes of violent disorder in Ghulja and a draconian Strike Hard campaign by the government, the Uyghurs and the Beijing government were locked in a vicious cycle of resistance and repression from which there appeared to be no escape.