This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on the culmination of seven years of research in community and economic development across four cities nationwide. It also focuses on the demographic shift back into cities over recent decades. The book discusses how the post-World War II economic restructuring has transformed strong-market cities from industrial and manufacturing centers to centers of innovation and creativity led by knowledge-based sectors. It presents the case study of Boston, Massachusetts, and how Boston is arguably the leading center for research and innovation in the medical field and also discusses how the Longwood Medical and Academic Area (LMA) is continually expanding into the surrounding poorer neighborhoods of color. Finally, the book explains the current economic crisis of home foreclosures, high unemployment, and increased income/wealth inequality and poverty ironically has strengthened community development grassroots efforts.