The identity of Acehnese women and gender relations in Acehnese society are important aspects to understand women's movements in Aceh. This chapter discusses how many Acehnese women have responded to the social and political circumstances by organizing into NGOs and women's movements to provide protection, support and help for other Acehnese women. Women organize into women's movements on the basis of their gender identity and gender interests. There has been a continuing debate on the definition of women's movements within the disciplines of political science, sociology and women's studies. The intensifying military conflict reignited new military action with Indonesian President Megawati Soekarnoputri declaring Aceh under military emergency and martial law was again imposed. In general, it is argued that the development of women's movements in Aceh has been shaped by decades of military conflict, the authoritarian and centralist New Order administration and patriarchal interpretations of religious doctrines.