Paedophilia is the desire to have sexual relations, either in fantasy or in fact, with a prepubescent child. In common usage, the term paedophile has come to be applied to all individuals who desire to have sexual relations with young people below the age of consent. The precise term for those desiring sex with under-age adolescents is ephebophiles (from the Greek ephebe = adolescent) but it is not often used. The great majority of paedophiles are male and they vary in the degree to which they can sublimate or feel compelled to act out their desires. Some, possibly a majority, are able to ﬁnd a measure of fulﬁlment in committing themselves to a mentoring role, such as school teacher, sports coach, scout master, or child care worker, while successfully inhibiting physical expression of their erotic desires; others may limit their amorous propensities to touching or fondling children, occasionally sharing sexual innuendoes or erotic jokes with them. Others again may go so far as to manipulate the child’s genitals or perform fellatio or cunnilingus; while others may go further still and actually penetrate the child’s vagina, mouth or anus with their ﬁngers or penis, using various degrees of force or coercion to do so. Except in cases where the disorder is associated with sexual sadism, the paedophile may be genuinely attentive to the child’s needs, either out of love and aﬀection, or a wish to retain his or her loyalty so as to make it unlikely that the child will reveal to others the erotic nature of the relationship. While some paedophiles prefer boys, others prefer girls, and some are aroused by both. The course of the condition is usually chronic, especially in those attracted to boys. Among convicted paedophiles, the recidivism rate is approximately twice as high for those who prefer boys to girls. The great majority of homosexual males are not, however, paedophiles.