Deforestation in Amazonia has been a product of an advancing capitalist frontier that has continuously incorporated new areas into the system. This has entailed clearing virgin forests and commodification of land and other natural resources. This process of incorporation has created commodity chains extending both domestically and internationally for the region. These have generated high profits that have stimulated further expansion of the frontier into the forest. Those who have benefited most from this process are large landowners, sawmills, and corporations. Environmental organisations and their networks have emerged as the biggest challengers to this system. Along with the Indian movement and grassroots organizations, they have demanded the preservation of the forest. This has led to major conflicts with Brazilian developmentalists. Despite the financial resources of the latter, the movement to preserve Amazonia has enjoyed some significant victories.