When I took my fi rst job in a School of Education in 1982, that School, like most others, had a “Reading Program.” The program trained people to teach reading, to engage in research on reading, and to carry out clinical practice on children with reading problems. Many of the reading courses had the word “remedial” in their titles. The going theory in those days was that most children learned to read well enough in school, but some had problems. These problems needed to be remediated, often in a reading clinic on campus in something akin to therapy. “Reading problems” were really the focus of the fi eld.