In addition to the standard or Basic Validity and Clinical scales, many supplementary or special scales were created for the MMPI. Dahlstrom, Welsh, and Dahlstrom (1972, 1975), for example, noted that more than 450 special scales have been developed for the test instrument. Butcher and Tellegen (1978) observed that there may be more MMPI special scales than there are statements in the MMPI item pool! Clopton (1978, 1979, 1982), Butcher and Tellegen (1978), and Butcher, Graham, and Ben-Porath (1995) provided critical reviews of the methodological problems encountered in the construction of MMPI special scales. Several texts have been published specifically in the area of MMPI special scale use with the original instrument. Caldwell (1988) provided interpretive information on 104 supplementary scales based on his extensive clinical experience with these measures. Levitt (1989) and Levitt and Gotts (1995) provided an overview of special scale interpretation that includes discussions of the Wiggins (1966) Content scales and the Harris-Lingoes (1955) subscales. Ben-Porath et al. (2006) have provided a guide to the Content Component subscales, the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales, and critical items in a supplement to the MMPI-A manual.