Typically, the buildings were made of concrete block masonry confined within a reinforced concrete frame, and used poor-quality materials. Community infrastructure and services were generally lacking. Poor drainage, poor sanitation and inferior waste management posed serious public health

hazards. When the earthquake hit in 2010, 60 per cent of the Villa

Rosa settlement was devastated. Out of 1,335 houses, 595 were completely destroyed and 260 were damaged. The high density and lack of access made search-and-rescue almost impossible.