This chapter discusses the Kerala model of development and its performance with special reference to indigenous communities. With regard to the indigenous people, Kerala followed the broad approach of the national government. Most of the programmes implemented were in the framework provided by the Central government, and it was mandatory for the state to abide by it. The plantation runs at a loss, and in the year 2000 they transferred from the Forest Department to the Forest Development Corporation of Kerala for more efficient management. Within the framework of the Kerala model, the state has twenty-seven major social security and welfare schemes currently targeting various categories. The crisis of the Kerala model has since then been exacerbated by liberalisation and structural adjustment policies. The leftist government that came to power in Kerala in 1996 initiated the decentralised planning process through the people's plan campaign as a strategy to combat the adverse effects of the neoliberal policies.