Countries’ export and import regulations directly impact an exporter or importer’s ability to undertake profitable international trade transactions. National regulation may bar an exporter’s ability to honor a contract if he is precluded from exporting his goods. Also, the cost of importing can be dramatically changed in the event that the duties assigned to a transaction through customs regulations are different from what was expected by the importer. This chapter addresses the relationship between U.S. customs regulations and private business transactions. Does the typical U.S. exporter need to be concerned with violating U.S. export regulations? What do U.S. export regulations demand of the exporter? What are the consequences for violating the regulations?