ABSTRACT

The evidence-based approach to reporting the outcomes of statistical tests is about the reliability of findings. The key to this approach is the accumulation of evidence through multiple studies investigating the same or similar hypotheses. Sophisticated statistical methods that might be applied to a single study are not necessary. Underlying the evidence-based approach is the knowledge that a single study is not sufficient to use as evidence to substantiate a hypothesis or theory. In the social or applied sciences and in the discipline of education, there is a tendency to try new interventions based on minimal evidence such as that derived from a single study. However, if we examine the discipline of clinical medicine, we would be horrified if the medication we were taking or the surgical technique applied were based on a single study. Instead, we assume that the judgments made by medical practitioners are based on multiple, welldesigned studies that demonstrate reliable interventions.