Green infrastructure development in the USA, as noted in Chapter 2, has historically taken a water-centric approach. This is visible in the city-wide investment programmes in New York and Philadelphia, which framed their recent approaches to urban greening (Austin, 2014), but also highlights the links between landmark projects, such as the Emerald Necklace in Boston, and the influence of water management on green infrastructure planning (Fábos, 2004). Partially, this reflects the role that engineers and engineered solutions have played in landscape resource management, but may also illustrate a lack of cooperation between agencies, with the exception of some water-based projects, that has limited the effectiveness of landscape management practices (Benedict & McMahon, 2006).