In this chapter, the empirical relationship between innovation, human development and growth is discussed in-depth by comparing national and regional economic systems. Two main questions are addressed: ‘How do countries and regions rank with respect to these three dimensions?’ and ‘Is it possible to identify groups of countries and regions at similar stages in terms of innovation, growth and human development?’ To respond to these questions, two sets of data are used: one focusing on 40 middle- and high-income countries covering the period 1995–2012 and the other on 266 European regions covering the period 2000–2012.