This chapter summarizes the findings from the case studies and provide an analytical comparison of the four countries, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa. South Africa is the most diverse and competitive economy of the four countries studied and arguably on the whole of the continent. In Adapted Development Strategies (ADS), there is some sense of policy ownership and decent effort to articulate national priorities. Imposed Development Strategy (IDS) approach reflects the Structural Adjustments of the 1980s and is different from the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) framework which even though it is externally driven with conditionality encourages inclusiveness and integration of local realities. Although broad consultation can enhance policy ownership and a better understanding of local imperatives, inclusiveness does not necessarily translate into effective and impactful policy. Adopted Development Strategies (AoDS) is the approach taken by most African countries under the HIPC initiative, including Malawi, Zambia and Mali.