The nature and fundamental role of imagination or imagery in mental life, according to James, is treated extensively in this chapter. In particular, the relation of imagery or images to the topics of earlier chapters – namely, sensation, perception, and conception – is discussed along with their relations to reasoning and memory. James’s views on words as images and on the impossibility of completely imageless thought are also treated. Both reproductive and productive imagination are mentioned, and James’s assessment of memory as including both short-term and long-term retention is discussed. Some consideration is given to the neurological basis of memory. Factors affecting memory, the sense of time, limitations of memory, false testimony, the relation of memory to belief, and the personal nature of memory are all treated. The superiority of memory strengthened by multiple associations over mere neurological capacity for retention leads James to make certain recommendations regarding learning. Critical comments as well as examples of James’s foresight regarding imagination and memory are provided.