As discussed in chapters 1 and 2, the higher education sector has changed dramatically, with a number of factors converging to create this changing environment. There is, for example, the need for more generic, critical and collaborative learning skills; the importance of formative assessment which establishes a strong feedback loop and expectations; the need to develop more flexible, independent learning environments which better prepare students for the contemporary workforce; the development of new technological possibilities for assessment; a need to respond to increased levels of plagiarism arising from access to online sources; the endeavours of academic staff to build timeand energy-efficient assessment tasks in the context of much greater class sizes; and, importantly, the more diverse learning styles and needs of contemporary students. Many of these qualities have been formalised by universities to constitute

what are termed ‘graduate attributes’ which they commit to equipping all their graduates with. Broadly speaking, these refer to a general set of skills, qualities, understandings

or habits of mind which the university agrees all its graduates will possess. Importantly, these qualities are in addition to the disciplinary knowledge which the graduate has, and are designed to prepare them to enter the workforce (in particular) well-primed. They can do this with confidence given that most have also undertaken compre-

hensive curricula mapping and reviews in order that their particular attributes are scaffolded through each degree. Whilst there is some variation between institutions, there is a strong and almost universal agreement that all university graduates should (in no particular order):

Be capable of effective teamwork Have excellent communication skills Be skilled and knowledgeable in their disciplines

Be innovative and capable of critical enquiry Be effective global citizens.