CMC researchers have employed a wide range of methods for data collection and analysis. In this final chapter, I focus on some of the methodological approaches that have been adopted in existing research on multilingualism online. While most of the topics and issues have been covered in discussions of general CMC methodologies, this chapter highlights some of the issues that are specific to researching multilingualism on the internet. To date, no frameworks have been developed specifically for the study of online multilingualism. In principle, research designs that are applicable to general CMC research may also be suitable for researching

online multilingualism. (For general discussions on CMC methods, see Herring, 2009; Barton and Lee, 2013; Androutsopoulos, 2013b; Bolander and Locher, 2014; Page et al., 2014). Existing studies of online multilingualism have covered a rich array of languages, CMC platforms, and research contexts. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods have been used in this body of work. Some scholars have grounded their studies in the theories of traditional sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and pragmatics, and they have adopted the analytical methods used in these fields accordingly. Some of the more common methods of analysis include conversation analysis, critical discourse analysis, and interactional sociolinguistics. Others have employed methods that are specifically designed for CMC research, such as computer-mediated discourse analysis (CMDA), web content analysis, technobiographies, and discourse-centered online ethnography (DCOE).