Throughout European history until the early modern period, the public affairs, government, politics, international diplomacy was really considered to be the private business of kings, nobles, and their ministers. In 1706, as the former businessman and current spy and political writer Daniel Defoe left London for the Scottish capital Edinburgh, he prepared to marshal public opinion to the Crown's cause. Defoe began his work by making friends with pro-Union Scots, who gave him information on each day's deliberations. Defoe read the anti-Union pamphlets by patriotic Scots and took care to answer their arguments. In the late twentieth century, movie viewing shifted from something that people do outside the home, in public spaces, to something that people do in the privacy of their own home. By the end of the seventeenth century, the art market had shifted toward private collections, with works of art being seen increasingly as home decorating for the wealthy.