It was probably the biggest interest group battle in American history. Certainly, it was the most expensive. Hundreds of millions of dollars were spent by the various groups on television, print advertising, expensive lobbyists, public opinion polls, and all the many aspects of what has become Interest Group Politics in America. It was a battle of survival for many of the interests involved. Literally, a life-or-death struggle with nearly any amount of resource expenditures justified by the gravity of the conflict. If passed, the new laws would fundamentally change a huge part of the American economy, not to mention their potential impact on the nature of American society as well as its politics. The battle was fought during 1993 and 1994 and came to dominate the American political agenda to the near exclusion of almost all other issues. It was interest group politics as its best and worst.