INTRODUCTION Thus far, we have discussed structural members subject to bending stress against one axis or tensile or compressive axial stress. Oftentimes, however, structural members must be designed to resist a combined loading condition. For example, the load on a column may be off-center, causing both an axial stress and a bending moment. This chapter includes discussions of the following types of combined loading conditions: single axis bending and axial tension, single axis bending and axial compression, eccentric loading on columns, and biaxial bending. See Figure 7.1.