This chapter describes the process that can be used when conducting an assessment for any of the specific learning difficulties (SpLDs). Tunmer and Chapman (1996) have shown how dyslexic children have poor metacognitive awareness and this leads them to adopt inappropriate learning behaviours in reading and spelling. Phonological assessment is particularly important for children with dyslexia as a difficulty in phonics is usually the main issue that is causing difficulties in literacy. Formative assessment can be complementary to the use of more formal tests. It is usually informal, but there is scope for the use of more informal measures in informal assessment. Miscue analysis or something similar, can be used in a diagnostic way to look at the type of errors the child is making. Goodman suggests that by using miscue analysis a teacher can listen to a child read and determine whether a mistake or miscue results.