This chapter focuses on the board of guardians, whose duties are to relieve the destitute, giving food, lodging, and medical aid when required. So long as boards of guardians remain a separate local governing body and are hemmed in by present regulations in giving indoor medical relief, this timely and general treatment cannot be obtained. New York was the first city in the world which enacted the compulsory removal law in regard to tuberculosis. Liverpool and Bradford have been pioneers in providing for the treatment of comparatively early cases of phthisis through boards of guardians. The boards of guardians have, in fact, the accommodation and arrangements for treatment without being able to secure the patients at the most favourable time. The sanitary authority can secure the patients, but seldom or never has the accommodation and arrangements for treating them. The protracted institutional treatment of advanced cases, when the home conditions are unfavourable.