Having investigated exit from the agricultural sector in the previous chapter, we concluded that the structural transformation (ST) in rural India not only goes on, but increases in pace and moreover that the inequalities growing between villages and regions are weakly or highly integrated into the non-farm economy. These results support one of the main hypotheses of this book. On the other hand, we get less clear-cut support for our hypotheses on the effects of ST on agrarian structures. The entry/exit model points to a weakening of family labour farms at the same time as large landowners are more resilient. There may have been a break in trends in the latest period studied, but this is not firmly established. What is clear however is that smallholder-agricultural labourers as well as landless labourers have grown in terms of their share of the agrarian population.