Hugh Le Caine invented the voltage-controlled synthesizer in 1945 but never achieved commercial success with his invention. That accomplishment fell to American engineer Robert Moog, whose finely crafted solid-state synthesizer modules, introduced during the mid-1960s, were the first to be sold with any success. Moog’s instruments were classics in a field that soon became crowded with aggressive and often better-financed competitors. Over 40 years later, the classic synthesizers bearing the Moog name and his robust circuitry still represent the gold standard of the analog electronic music industry.