This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book shows how the authors theorize about mind-brain relationships depend in large part on the measuring tools that are available at any time. The earliest written records of mind-brain relationships come from Egyptian medical papyri. The Egyptian physicians are the earliest to observe a specific relationship between the brain, mind, and behavior. The ancient Egyptian physicians reported that a stimulus-mechanical pressure led to both behavioral effect and a cognitive one. Cognitive neuroscience is at a point of transition, one in which the science is about to be transformed from one emphasizing the macroscopic level of analysis to one that emphasizes the microscopic scale. This is a fundamental change that makes brain imaging diminishing its importance and to be replaced by multiple electrode arrays and extraordinary new computer systems.