Given the sometimes challenging findings in previous chapters, it is tempting to conclude that attempting reform from within economics departments will always be futile and that efforts are best directed outside traditional centres of economics teaching in departments of social science, or departments of management. However, the existence of pluralist economics departments provides empirical refutation of the ultra-pessimist position that all contemporary economics departments must of necessity be irredeemably monist. Given the clear reality of pluralist departments, there are three lines of inquiry that seem important to pursue. First, how have such departments developed? Second, how do they manage pluralism in practice? Third, do such departments have any prospects for becoming the norm or are they just special cases that are only likely to develop, and persist, in very special circumstances?