In this chapter, the author wants to indicate, the main aspects of the educational thought and practice which, he shall argue, militate against the ideal. The author doesn't look here for psychological or sociological explanations of why one as individuals or groups reject this ideal and strive after others instead, because it is not at all clear to him that in general it is the case that one do. Obviously some people do, valuing conformity or blind allegiance to ideology above autonomy and freedom, or prizing physical and material development above intellectual and cultural development. And there are certainly some values, most notably economic ones, that are widely adhered to but which do not play a prominent part in the ideal. The author attempts to locate and describe six erroneous beliefs that are part and parcel of the way one talk and think about education.