The author has laid out in broad terms a social and educational ideal, predicated heavily on the values of freedom, autonomy, and understanding, but certainly not a purely rationalistic one. Rather it is a humanistic ideal devoted to education in a sense to be contrasted with indoctrination, training, and socialisation, a sense that some would prefer to explicitly label 'liberal education' since it is designed to liberate the mind and the person as a whole. A few may explicitly challenge the ideal. Of those few, some will revert to arguments such as that it is clear that the ideal is old-fashioned or advocated by a member of a particular class or background. But since age is not a relevant criterion to establishing truth, and to question the motives of the arguer is to confuse explanation with justification, such arguments can be ignored as irrelevant.