This chapter examines how the Fukushima nuclear disaster created a social condition in which the traditional notion of breadwinning fatherhood came into conflict with the traditional role of mother as a caretaker, making it harder to protect children from potential radiation exposure. But, when the nuclear disaster in Fukushima put the nation in turmoil, the gender roles that were previously taken for granted created a schism between fathers and mothers. The nation state has been the overpowering frame of reference for Japanese masculinity since the late nineteenth century. The Japanese government's claims to safety with the support of pro-nuclear scientists and media set the backdrop for the fathers interviewed to downplay the risk of radiation and to seek to resume economic activities. As economic stability and work have been an integral part of Japanese masculinity, work organizations play an important role in men's lives.