Teachers in special schools usually have available quite a comprehensive range of back-up services for dealing with medical, social, educational or psychological problems. Reading is often taught by a combination of the look-and-say and phonic approaches with, as the children progress, a change from an emphasis on the former to an emphasis on the latter. Perceptual, visuo-motor and motor problems may work together to make it difficult for the child to carry out the sort of operations required in the early stages of number work. The value of programmes, whether they are ordinary classroom programmes devised by the individual teacher or programmes published for special categories of children, lies in the fact that they provide for the teacher a systematic and structured approach. Teachers in ordinary schools with physically handicapped pupils should also be informed of the LEAs programme of in-service training and helped to attend wherever possible.